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    Developing professional judgement in the legal profession: the use of the Professional Education and Training Programme (PEAT 2) in selected Scottish law firms

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    The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the development of professional judgement during the two year work-based pre-admission training period (PEAT 2) required of Scottish solicitors so as to identify a model that allows them to respond to the changes the UK legal services sector is experiencing. The methodology adopted throughout reflects an emphasis on researching knowledge in the context of its application (Flyvbjerg 2001). Professional judgement is described as the ‘heart of professional practice’ (Fish and Coles 1998) and is therefore selected to provide a holistic method of evaluation. The UK legal profession is fragmenting in its response to market pressures, including the introduction of external regulation and ‘alternative business structures’ under the Legal Services Act 2007 and increased globalisation, specialisation and commoditisation. It is therefore important to identify the traditional method used by Scottish solicitors to develop their judgement as there is a risk that what was previously implicit and assumed in this ‘community of practice’ (Wenger 1998) becomes dissipated. As a result, the relevance and application of judgement is considered in the context of professional practice and solicitors in particular. The effect of external influences are interpreted, including in relation to the job of a solicitor, the future development of judgement and implications for legal education. The research method adopted enables confidential data to be obtained about the development of professional judgement and the PEAT 2 processes through completion of semi-structured interviews with a number of Scottish law firms, the Law Society of Scotland and related regulatory organisations, supplemented with Scottish trainee focus groups and comparative data from illustrative law firms and regulators in England and Wales. This allows 10 detailed case studies of law firms to be developed and analysed using Eraut’s (2007) model of early career learning and Fuller and Unwin’s (2003) model of expansive and restrictive apprenticeships as well as providing commentary from experienced solicitors and regulatory sources on the development of professional judgement. This allows 10 detailed case studies of law firms to be developed and analysed using Eraut’s (2007) model of early career learning and Fuller and Unwin’s (2003) model of expansive and restrictive apprenticeships as well as providing commentary from experienced solicitors and regulatory sources on the development of professional judgement. This data enables an analysis of the effectiveness of the current Scottish pre-admission training processes and the identification of methods used to develop the judgement of novices. Findings indicate that elements of the formal requirements of PEAT 2 are limiting the experiential and reflective learning of trainees and, in the wider context of work-based learning, that professional judgement is developed through exposure to reflective practice in a ‘community’ that provides an expansive apprenticeship and establishes parameters of acceptable choices. Recommendations include adjustments to pre-admission legal training and the introduction of a specialist qualification, accredited by the Law Society of Scotland.Talbot, JonPerrin, Davi

    Touching the ineffable: Collective creative collaboration, education and the secular-spiritual in performing arts

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    Dance and Performing ArtsThis article considers a range of spiritual, psychological and pedagogical writing to examine whether the contemporary notion of ‘secular-spirituality’ can move forward our understanding of collaborative working processes in the performing arts. With reference to Anttila, Bigger, Bini, Czikszentmihalyi, Lave and Wenger, James, Roff, and Van Ness, the article focuses on the rehearsal room interplay of life world and social world through three key notions. These are ‘embodied knowing’, ‘bodily intelligence’ and ‘belonging’ in relation to the individual in the wider collaborative process. Some working practices of Forced Entertainment – as discussed by Tim Etchells – are then considered as a concluding and practice-based referent

    What happened to the legacy from London 2012? A sociological analysis of the processes involved in preparing for a grassroots sporting legacy from London 2012 outside of the host city

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    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Sport in Society on 01/02/2017, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17430437.2017.1284813Preparations for London 2012 included promises for a sporting legacy across Britain. APS data suggest that, despite a slight spike in 2012, we have not experienced the rise in participation promised. The importance of preparations for legacy were well documented but little research has examined these processes. We examine planning for sporting legacy within a non-Olympic city in England, Birmingham. 37 semi-structured interviews were conducted with people delivering sport in Birmingham to provide a figurational analysis of relationships involved. The change in government during the economic recession saw budget cuts and a reduction in sport development personnel. Whilst various organisations struggled financially, others wanted to link to legacy. This increase in groups involved led to confusion and the unintended outcome of ‘initiativitis’. In trying to leverage legacy, a strategic approach to managing potential opportunities with clear communication of opportunities is vital. A belief in inherent inspiration cannot be relied upon. Key words: London 2012, sport legacy, figurational sociology, Birmingham, initiativitis, school sports partnerships, policy, inherent inspiration, demonstration effec

    Interaction between TCF7L2 polymorphism and dietary fat intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol

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    Recent evidence suggests that lifestyle factors influence the association between the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) gene variants and cardio-metabolic traits in several populations; however, the available research is limited among the Asian Indian population. Hence, the present study examined whether the association between the MC4R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs17782313) and two SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene (rs12255372 and rs7903146) and cardio-metabolic traits is modified by dietary factors and physical activity. This cross sectional study included a random sample of normal glucose tolerant (NGT) (n=821) and participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (n=861) recruited from the urban part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for dietary assessment and self-reported physical activity measures were collected. The threshold for significance was set at P=0.00023 based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing [(0.05/210 (3 SNPs x 14 outcomes x 5 lifestyle factors)]. After Bonferroni correction, there was a significant interaction between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 SNP and fat intake (g/day) (Pinteraction=0.0001) on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), where the ‘T’ allele carriers in the lowest tertile of total fat intake had higher HDL-C (P=0.008) and those in the highest tertile (P=0.017) had lower HDL-C compared to the GG homozygotes. In a secondary analysis of SNPs with the subtypes of fat, there was also a significant interaction between the SNP rs12255372 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, g/day) (Pinteraction<0.0001) on HDL-C, where the minor allele carriers had higher HDL-C in the lowest PUFA tertile (P=0.024) and those in the highest PUFA tertile had lower HDL-C (P=0.028) than GG homozygotes. In addition, a significant interaction was also seen between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and fibre intake (g/day) on HDL-C (Pinteraction<0.0001). None of the other interactions between the SNPs and lifestyle factors were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. Our findings indicate that the association between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and HDL-C may be modified by dietary fat intake in this Asian Indian population

    Reterritorialised Spirituality: A Study in Cathedral Mission

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    English Cathedrals have an established and valued place in their respective locations. Their central role is to provide “the seat of the bishop and a centre of worship and mission”. The contention is that whilst there may be clarity about mission in terms of worship, education and interpretation of the building, there is less clarity about where the energy should be focused in terms of a wider missional role. Recent reports have sought to measure the social and economic impact a cathedral has in terms of its local environs and its reach in terms of social and spiritual capital. The cultural context suggests a rapidly changing religious landscape where the movement, in a consumer society, is away from obligation and traditional forms of religiosity towards a more open understanding of spirituality with freedom to explore, to sample and to choose what to consume. This research approaches mission from a spiritual perspective. It creates also an outer/inner approach from which to establish its empirical work. As such it is concerned with the construction of theory; it follows an inductive approach, though is openly disposed to an inductive-deductive interaction where appropriate. It provides an in-depth methodology based on a case study scenario utilising the qualitative techniques of focus groups and semi-structured interviews through which to collect the data. There are four data-sets each presenting an outer/inner perspective. Of unique interest was the appearance of a sizeable Occupy camp, occupying the site outside the case study cathedral for fourteen weeks raising fundamental questions about economic and social inequality at a time when austerity measures were beginning to take effect. This critical incident drew the cathedral into a more public engagement with the big questions that impact upon our daily lives. A key finding from the empirical work in the case study is that alongside its ecclesial focus the perceived core priority must be its mission to the city through its invitation and welcome but also through its outreach. I use social capital theory to engage with aspects of ‘bonding’ and ‘bridging’. Beyond the functionalist approaches, cultural and symbolic capital enables a more reflexive understanding of institution and cathedral habitus. This moves the analysis from the horizontal to the vertical axis by which ‘linkages’ are made with mechanisms of power and issues of justice and care. This facilitates further dialogue with global flows and their impact on daily life which integrates with the critical incident that was Occupy. Further analytical methods were incorporated to engage with these macro themes. The theological investigation emanates from within three spiritualities, ‘ecclesial’, ‘mystical’ and ‘prophetic’. It seeks to focus on the spirituality of the community, the community’s engagement with the consumer-led ‘spiritual turn’ and its bridging/linking role in the wider community. As a theological device I use a typology taken from the reading of the psalms to convey orientation, disorientation and new orientation. It coheres in particular with themes of disenchantment and the search for deeper meaning. This thesis contributes to the field of knowledge and the corpus of literature by proposing a model of cathedral mission that draws upon its spiritual and social capital to engage within the liminal spaces of emergent spiritualities, and the contested spaces of disorientation and disenchantment recasting fresh theological moorings to engage meaningfully with issues of justice and care. The outcome is reflective, dynamic and strategic, “creating new understandings of existing issues” and interacting with “disparate concepts in new ways”

    Plot, picture and practice: comics, picture books and illustrated literary fiction.

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    Reporting on a January 2012 joint session of the Modern Language Association of America’s Division on Children’s Literature and the Discussion Group on Comics and Graphic Narratives, co-convener Charles Hatfield stated, “Scholars of the picture book (Nodelman; Spaulding; Nikolajeva & Scott; op de Beeck) have noted the aesthetics and reading demands of comics. Conversely, comics theorists (McCloud; Varnum & Gibbons) have suggested formal likenesses between [them] —including shared aesthetic resources, the relevance of word/image theory to both, and the growing prominence of comics in children’s publishing and reading instruction.” Session contributor Perry Nodelman stated that the formal definitions of each register continually contradict and confound each other, whilst Phillip Nel theorised that differences between picture books and comics result from particular author poesis, generating clustering, but not absolute, habits of form. Developing this idea, Joseph Thomas noted that each registers’ governing conventions also dictate and direct the uses to which picture books and comics are put. Relationships between form and the conditions of production and use of books that utilise text and image also form the axis of a more recent paper by Joe Sutliff Sanders, who writes, “Despite the obvious differences between [picture books and comics], nearly all of the formal terms most commonly used to define one can also easily be applied to the other. Still, in one of the common observations about both forms—that words and images work together to create meaning—lies the first step in a path toward distinguishing the two.” (84) These formal terms include the identification and generalisation of different types of plot transition (page to page in picture books, panel to panel in comics), the distribution of plot events, the frequency of page turns, the distribution and types of information provided by text and images and the shapes, proportions and production materials of both registers, to note only a few. I should say immediately that this paper will consider only three types of book in which text and image are utilised to present the diegesis: comics for children and adult readers, picture books for children andIllustrated literary fiction for children and adult readers. Although some of the terms of my discussion plausibly find application in all text/image productions, for the purpose of this paper, I will set aside, for example, contemporary digital applications and 16th and 17th century emblem books to focus on the implications of making distinctions between these three

    The professional identities of Ellen Wood

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    As author of the 1861 bestseller, East Lynne, Ellen Wood forged a successful literary career as a prolific writer of sensation fiction and celebrity-editor of The Argosy magazine. While this project will examine the construction and maintenance, of her most famous persona, the pious, conservative ‘Mrs Henry Wood’, an equal focus is afforded to the other literary identities under which Wood operated during her illustrious career. Although recent scholars have considered the business-like tenacity of Wood as a commercially driven writer in contrast to the fragile, conservative ‘Mrs Henry Wood’ persona, this dissertation integrates the identities forged in the early anonymous writings in periodicals and publications made under male pseudonyms with these contrasting representations to procure a comprehensive view of the literary identities adopted by Wood. Situating Wood in the context of her contemporaries, the role of the female writer in the mid-nineteenth-century is primarily outlined to inform Wood’s development of anonymous identities as a periodical writer through the semi-anonymous signature in contributions during the 1850s which foregrounded the ‘Mrs Henry Wood’ persona. The reputation of Wood’s most famous professional identity and recent challenges by critcis to that carefully devised image, are outlined through examination of the construction, conservation, and contradictions of Wood’s most profitable trademark, ‘Mrs. Henry Wood’. Finally, the inclusion of masculine identities provides a contrasting insight into Wood’s writings, including the relatively unsuccessful boys stories hampered by the ‘Mrs. Henry Wood’ reputation, alongside her successful male pseudonyms ‘Ensign Pepper’ and ‘Johnny Ludlow’. The consideration of the under studied professional identities adopted by Wood, alongside the famous ‘Mrs. Henry Wood’ literary persona, develops a comprehensive perception of the astute, tenacious businesswoman who deliberately crafted a popular yet respectable role in a saturated literary market

    The physiological and perceptual responses to cycling exercise in a fully-immersive virtual environment

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    With recent advancements in technology, fully-immersive virtual reality (VR) is now fast emerging as the latest piece of equipment that may revolutionise the way in which athletes are able to train. However, as of yet, few have examined the perceptual and physiological responses to exercising in VR and the subsequent impact it may have on performance. Using a repeated measures randomised crossover design, thirteen recreationally active participants (age = 24.9 ± 4.6 y; body mass = 78.7 ± 6.3 kg; stature = 178.6 ± 3.7 cm; VO2max = 55.1 ± 7.1 ml·kg-1·min-1, P-VO2 =344.7 ± 49.7) completed a time to exhaustion test (TTE) at 80% of P-VO2 under a control (CON) and virtual reality (VR) condition, with a minimum of 48h between trials. TTE (ES = 0.78; ±0.37), enjoyment (ES = 0.85; ±0.49) and positive affect (ES = 0.78; ±0.65) were all greater in the VR condition compared to CON. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) increased similarly over time in both conditions with the exception of minute 2, whereby RPE was lower in the VR condition (ES = 0.88; ±0.52). There were no changes in VO2 peak, b[La] and negative affect between conditions. These findings provide evidence to suggest that during the early stages of high intensity activity fully-immersive VR has the potential to reduce RPE. Further to this, VR also appears to increase the enjoyment of exercise at a high intensity and therefore increase the motivation to continue exercising. Future research should continue to explore this rapidly developing technology

    Rationalising practice as research: making a new graphic adaptation of a Trollope novel of 1879.

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    In the United Kingdom, practice-based research has been the subject of pedagogic debate for over a quarter of a century, in particular in the context of both the study methods and the adjudication of higher research degrees. However, there is still no agreed pedagogic definition of practice-based research in the visual and performing arts in Britain (Candy 2006:03). A report of the country’s Arts and Humanities Research Council, revised in 2008, could not identify ‘…any established or accepted prior definition…’ (Rust, Mottram and Till 2008:10). The term ’practice-based’ is widely used to describe the use of practice as a method of research, and its products as research outputs in themselves, not requiring the mediation of a text (Candy 2006:01). The term ‘practice-led’, on the other hand, refers to the processes and products of practice as topics for theoretical analysis utilising text, so that ‘…the results of practice-led research may be fully described in text form without the inclusion of a creative work.’ (Candy 2006:01). There is not a dearth of definitions, however, but rather a wide variety, predicated upon the developing programmes of individual places of study. Candlin identifies an extreme diversity of required research outputs, from the visual-only outputs required by Leeds Metropolitan University’s PhD by Visual Practice on one hand, to the requirement at the University of Hertfordshire for a written thesis of eighty thousand words to accompany visual material, on the other (Candlin 2000). The diversity of definitions of both methods and outputs is derived as much from a continuing debate on theoretical questions, arising out of debates about the practical issues of teaching and assessing research degrees. Three theoretical questions underpin the debates. First, are non-text outputs, artefacts, and the methods of their production, able to communicate knowledge rather than simply constituting knowledge? Second, by what criteria can this knowledge be adjudicated within an academic environment? Third, what is the status of these outputs and methods relative to the production of text

    Cities, States and Bicycles. Writing Cycling Histories and Struggling for Policy Relevance.

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