Glasgow Theses Service

    The geography of the Faerie Queene

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    The task has been to show that Spenser imagined Faeryland according to his own travel experience in England. The geography of The Faerie Queene 1 - the only book of the poem not set in the South, and the only book without coastlines - reveals Spenser's experience and interest in the North and the Northern Rebellion of 1569. We explore The Faerie Queene 1 (possibly quite extensively planned and drafted before the poet set sail for Ireland in August 1580) as a discrete geography, finding it quite unlike the terrains of the books which follow. This is so because Spenser almost certainly had never gained any substantive travel experience in the South West, where are found the coastlines he came to know during his brief and prolonged returns to England during 1580-96.\ud \ud Written during Spenser's life in Ireland, The Faerie Queene 2-6 is enacted on English soil where, I argue, Spenser's journeys to and from the South West - the coastlines, forestry, settlements and towns - can often be traced and mapped in the journeys of the poem's travellers. The travels of Artegall, Britomart, Guyon and Calidore establish the western terrain and the western and southern coasts of the poem. Such is the importance of the travels of these knights to the poem's geography, that we can establish Artegall's journey to the West Coast, and Britomart's journey to the same place. Britomart knows the coast to which Artegall is bound is the place where she will find him. Distractions during the journey keep him from the 'appointed tide' and Britomart having arrived at Artegall's intended coast, journeys inland from the Rich Strond (Plymouth) to find him - somewhere along the western route between London and Plymouth

    Improving the statutory regulation of consensual sexual behaviour between adolescents in Scotland

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    This thesis examines the extent to which the criminal law is a suitable tool for the regulation of the sexual behaviour of ‘older children’ and identifies the most appropriate approach for that involvement to take. The research takes place in the context of the current approach in Scotland, whereby all consensual sexual intercourse and oro-genital sexual activity between two ‘older children’, defined as those aged 13 to 15, is criminalised under section 37 of the Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009. The nature of this legislation is described in detail in Part One of the thesis, and then contextualised against the relatively widespread occurrence of these activities amongst older children and the very limited number of prosecutions under the provision in practice. The question of whether, on balance, the current approach is appropriate is addressed over Parts Two and Three of the thesis. In making this assessment, the thesis integrates relevant public health research and aspects of research into adolescent psychology and neurological development, with the principles that should normatively inform criminalisation decisions and doctrinal legal discussions. Overall, it is argued that, while there are good public policy reasons to encourage older children to delay engaging in sexual intercourse and oro-genital sexual activity, the current blanket approach taken by the criminal law in Scotland is overly broad. Part Four of the thesis makes an extensive comparative analysis of the legal approaches taken to consensual adolescent sexual intercourse in other common law jurisdictions, to identify possible approaches that Scotland might follow in preference to the current law. These approaches are drawn upon to advocate a more refined approach in the substantive law in Scotland that criminalises consensual sexual intercourse and oro-genital sexual activity involving older children only where there is a substantial age difference between the participants or where there is otherwise evidence of exploitation. The thesis argues that the refined approach would safeguard adolescents against exploitation without automatically criminalising significant numbers of adolescents for their consensual sexual behaviour

    A study of late eighteenth century linguistic, cultural and philosophical attitudes in Britain : with a focus on the lexicographical work of Captain Francis Grose

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    Francis Grose, the compiler of A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, a popular slang dictionary first published in 1785, has been much overlooked by scholarly study. A comparatively minor figure in the history of the study of the English language, he nevertheless provides valuable insight into the evolution of academic interest in aspects of English. In the eighteenth century English as a language began to be studied in earnest, with countless grammars, glossaries and dictionaries being published. Along with a great quantity of formal texts such as dialect glosses or dictionaries of the English language such as Samuel Johnson‘s, there was an equally prolific subversive underbelly of dictionaries of the non-Standard, of slang and of cant. These informal texts provide an alternative viewpoint to the different varieties and registers of English and allow a broader understanding of the way in which these various areas of the language were thought about and studied. Julie Coleman‘s three-volume work on the history of cant and slang dictionaries provides a valuable overview of this specialised area of historical linguistics but a more concentrated study on a key figure in eighteenth century society allows a broader understanding of eighteenth century concepts of Britishness, refinement and English as a spoken and written language. The object of this dissertation is to show the link between late Enlightenment and early Romantic thought by critically examining the writings of antiquarian and lexicographer, Francis Grose. Grose‘s existence in the transitional period between these two philosophies makes him a valuable subject for study. The fact that he wrote on the speech of marginal people such as gypsies, beggars and thieves as well as people who lived outside the fashionable centre of London means that social attitudes to non-Standard English can also be examined. Links can also be drawn to significant literary figures such as Robert Burns and William Wordsworth who were both actively writing at this pivotal time. The following questions will be addressed during the course of this dissertation: in what ways does Francis Grose conform to the standards of his time and, equally, how does he deviate from them? How does his lexicographical work reflect changes in linguistic, cultural and philosophical attitudes at the end of the eighteenth century

    Sir William Burrell (1861-1958): the man and the collector

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    This thesis analyses the life and collecting career of the Glaswegian mercantile collector Sir William Burrell (1861-1958). It covers the period from 1882, his first recorded purchase, to 1983, the year that The Burrell Collection first opened in Pollok Country Park, Glasgow. This involves placing Burrell into the context of late nineteenth and early twentieth century middle-class collectors, who were distinct from their aristocratic predecessors through their support of modern and contemporary artists and art movements. Although Burrell’s collecting interests were catholic, ranging from medieval tapestries and stained glass, to Persian carpets, Chinese ceramics and bronzes, historical furniture, modern European painting and much more, this thesis illustrates his engagement with his contemporary artistic context. Throughout his collecting career Burrell loaned his objects to public exhibitions and institutions, highlighting his belief in the public’s access to art, something that ultimately led to his gift of the collection to Glasgow in 1944. Burrell’s collection comprises of over 8,000 objects. Rather than examine individual areas of the collection, this thesis considers it as an object itself, one that has had varying forms and values over time but was ultimately brought together through the act of the gift. In light of this, four main themes are examined: public mindedness, relationships, identity and legacy. Within these themes overarching research questions are posed: how did Burrell collect, what drove his acquisitions, and what were his intentions for his collection. Through the use of a broad range of archival material, this thesis builds up an image of Burrell the collector through the lens of his contemporaries. It is a biographical analysis of both man and collection, and seeks to understand the collector through the objects that he acquired. It ultimately reveals that what unites Burrell’s wide-ranging collection was his interest in artistry and craftsmanship, and his desire to learn through the objects that he collected. This not only affected what he bought but also who his closest associates were. This thesis reassesses Burrell, opening up new ways to consider him as a collector in the late nineteenth and twentieth century

    Nineteenth-Century Stage Adaptations of the Works of Sir Walter Scott on the Scottish Stage: 1810-1900

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    This study sets out to prove the thesis that the dramas derived from the writings of Sir Walter Scott enjoyed a far more complex relationship with the nineteenth-century Scottish theatre than has been formerly supposed. It challenges the accepted view of these dramas as simply being more "popular" in Scotland and in so doing it creates an extensive listing of performances of 'Scott' dramas on the nineteenth-century Scottish stage, structured in such a way as to isolate and illuminate the position of the plays in the overall nineteenth-century theatrical repertoire. The study is divided into four chapters, with three large and three small Appendixes, in three volumes. Chapter 1 is a Review of the Critical Literature which traces the path of scholarly thinking on the subject to date and identifies areas of difficulty, caused in many cases by the reliance of scholars on subjective source materials. Chapter 2, the Methodology, sets out a solution to the problem of the source materials which bases the model of the 'Scott' dramas on the nineteenth-century Scottish stage on a concrete foundation of statistical information taken from the surviving playbills of the period. The section then outlines the techniques which will be employed to handle and process the information from thousands of playbills and introduces the two 'controls' - the Henderson/Waverley (Appendix 3) and Henderson/Scottish (Appendix 4), collections of bills. Chapter 3 is the Main Catalogue Listing containing 3605 entries for 'Scott' drama, which is bound separately as Volume 2. Chapter 4 is the Breakdown and Analysis which compares and contrasts the contents of the Main Catalogue Listing with Appendixes 3 and 4 focussing, in separate sections, on The National Drama pre-Scott; the Development of the 'Scott' dramas; a textual comparison of adaptations of The Heart of Mid-Lothian seen in parallel with its stage history; the theatrical history of plays from Rob Roy, Guy Mannering, The Abbot and The Bride of Lammermoor; a breakdown of coded information contained in the entries, covering management techniques and audience attitudes revealed in such items as the use of the 'Scott' dramas for benefits, in compressed or truncated versions, patronage, the investment of money in new scenery, the presence and usage of guest artists. The 'Scott' dramas are revealed to have had a complex and highly specialised place in the nineteenth-century Scottish theatre. The Conclusion briefly considers the implications of the study for future research in the area

    Investigating the structure of herpes simplex virus - 1 at the interface between the capsid and tegument

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    The structure of the herpesviruses particle is characterised by an icosahedral capsid surrounded by a proteinaceous tegument layer and is enclosed by a lipid envelope. The understanding of the structure of the capsid, primarily through the use of cyro-electron microscopy, is greater to than of the tegument, due to the typically amorphous nature of the tegument. The interaction between the capsid and tegument has been well studied, unveiling interactions limited to the capsid vertices involving two minor capsid proteins, pUL17 and pUL25, and the large tegument protein pUL36. In herpes simplex virus – 1 (HSV-1), pUL17 and pUL25 form the capsid vertex-specific component (CVSC), a heterodimeric structure which resides in top of triplexes between peripentonal hexons. pUL36 has been suggested to connect the CVSC to the penton and to the rest of the tegument proteins. Recent studies on the gammaherpesvirus Karposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV) have questioned both the protein content of the CVSC and the organization of pUL17 and pUL25. As well as the composition of the CVSC, these studies have provided further insight as to the location of tegument assembly to the capsid, a subject that remains a highly contested. In order to clarify the content of the CVSC, virus mutants with deletions of the large inner tegument protein pUL36, and a second inner tegument protein, pUL37, were analysed using cryo-electron microscopy and icosahedral reconstructions. The examination and comparisons of these mutants with wild-type HSV-1 revealed that the CVSC is not only formed by pUL17 and pUL25 as originally reported, but also pUL36, as suggested in the most recent studies. In addition, comparisons of the capsid structure of the pUL36 deletion mutant with a mutant with a full deletion of pUL34, a protein implicated in nuclear egress as part of the nuclear envelopment complex (NEC) and therefore cannot exit the nucleus, suggest that at least part of pUL36 is present on nuclear capsids. Further analyses of the mutant virus with pUL36 deleted using immunofluorescence and Western blotting, along with the capsid reconstruction of a pUL36 deletion mutant which retains only the N-terminal 361 codons suggest that the C-terminal end of pUL36 is present in the nucleus. The work presented here offers additional evidence to clarify the roles of pUL17, pUL25 and pUL36 in tegument assembly. In particular, structural analysis has implied that the contributions of pUL36 to the nuclear capsid stabilizes the CVSC structure from a structural stand-point, emphasizing it’s importance as a multifunctioning protein which acts as a bridge between the capsid and tegument

    Compositional strategies for pervasive performance

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    I have defined the term 'pervasive performance' to apply to an emerging form of artistic cultural production which blends aspects of theatre, site-specific art, and game play to create an immersive participatory experience. Pervasive: because the parameters for the performance extend beyond the conventional time frame for a theatre performance so that 'showtime' pervades beyond hours, extending into days, weeks, even months. Pervasive: because the performance extends from the stage or screen so that the performance arena becomes the real world of the daily lives of its audience. A central feature to pervasive performance is the overlapping (or erasure) of boundaries between media and their attendant conventions. Observers become participants, or players, and the 'play' is itself a world of play where reality blends with the fictional. A 'mixed' reality performance space is established because the performance space extends: into private homes, into the public domain of streets outside, and into the virtual world of internet hubs and social networks. The diegetic landscape of the performance as the world of the play is present in three places simultaneously: manifest reality, the hi-tech networked 'virtual' space, and the virtual playground of the imagination. Other terms for cultural practices, which overlap with this form, include 'Pervasive Gaming', 'Multimedia Interactive Theatre Experience' and 'Augmented Reality Game'. Each indicates a slight variation on the spectrum from computer game to theatre performance, though all denote a form of play, which extends into the daily lives of its participants. This extension takes place on both spatial and temporal axes - often using the pervasiveness of communicative technologies, such as mobile phones and internet hubs, to telematically transmit the performance 'text'. Using my own practice, compositional analysis, and first-hand observations of performance works by Blast Theory, this study explores the design problem inherent in a participative artwork which needs to balance both the end-participant's desire for plot-driven narrative or action, with the freedom to make autonomous choices in the world of the performance. Questioning the mutuality of these two different dramaturgical challenges, I will assess the compositional structures and implications of agency in pervasive narrative. Challenging representations and embodiments of locality and identity, the pervasive performance form operates through politically charged processes, thus contaminating discourse (Giannachi, 2007, p.49) and preventing a positivist critical analysis. This study aims to uncover these processes, the compositional structures they might inhabit and the extent to which this form can be considered interactive. Whether a dramaturgy of pervasive performance implies a process of control or whether its interactivity presents a real possibility for freedom will be explored in this thesis

    Dwelling among ruins: landscapes in the late 8th century BC Argolic Plain, Greece

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    This thesis explores the meaningful character of traces of earlier occupation and burial locations visible in the late 8th century BC landscape of the Argolic Plain in the northeast Peloponnese, Greece. It will be argued that, where ruined former habitation remains and burials were observed in the contemporary landscape, these locations were regarded as meaningful places. In the past, scholarly interest has predominantly focussed on late 8th century BC votive activity and burial reuse in connection with Bronze Age chamber tombs and tholoi. However, this thesis will demonstrate that these activities should not be dislocated from the wider landscape but, rather, should be considered alongside contemporaneous interconnected behaviour. In support of this position, evidence of ritual performances among the ruins of abandoned former Bronze Age acropolis locations; placing of burials within the ruins of Bronze Age buildings; and establishment of shrines within areas of Bronze and Early Iron Age cemeteries will be considered along with data specific to late 8th century BC activities in connection with Bronze Age chamber tombs and tholoi. It will be established that these trends should be viewed collectively as a single phenomenon acknowledging locations where earlier occupation and burial remains were observed as places appropriate for the performance of rituals or burial of the dead in the late 8th century BC. This thesis will implement a landscape archaeology approach along with contextual analysis of the data and will propose an interpretation of late 8th century BC interest in earlier constructions visible in the contemporary landscape. This interpretation will assert a potential ideological connection between the location of ritual performances in association with previous occupation or burial areas and the regenerative qualities of the earth

    Tetralin hydrogenation over supported monometallic and bimetallic catalysts systems

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    Hydrogenation of multi ring aromatics has become an essential part of the oil and gas industry to upgrade transportation fuel and to reduce their negative impact on the environment. Not enough attention has been paid to minimise these products especially their derivatives. Thus, tetralin was selected in this project as a representative model for partially hydrogenated polyaromatic product hydrogenation in the middle distillate fraction. In this study, an investigation was carried out to examine the feasibility of using monometallic and bimetallic catalytic systems in this process. Several nickel and cobalt catalysts were synthesised utilising different techniques (i.e. incipient wetness impregnation, precipitation deposition, and highly dispersed catalyst techniques) and materials in order to vary the properties of the prepared catalysts. The characteristic properties of the fresh and spent catalysts were determined employing AAS, BET, TGA/MS, XRD, Raman, hydrogen chemisorption, and XPS. In terms of catalytic testing, the activity of the prepared catalysts was evaluated in a continuous down flow fixed bed reactor at fixed space velocities (i.e. WHSV=5 h-1 and LHSV= 3 h-1) and different temperatures (180-280 °C), pressures (5-15 barg), and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio (4.3-10.5) for 7 - 80 hours. The pre-reaction characterisation results revealed some differences between the properties of the synthesised catalysts especially metal dispersion and mean particle diameter. The variation in the properties of these catalysts was reflected on their catalytic activities and selectivities. The catalyst testing results suggested that higher activities and trans-decalin selectivity were attained over catalysts with higher dispersion and smaller mean particle size. It was also found that high dispersion, small metal particle size, and small pore size of the support contributed to reducing the deactivation rate. However, the effect of small particle size differed when the type of the support and the population and distribution of metal over the surface of the catalyst were altered in which cis-decalin selectivity was enhanced. Similarly, the type of the metal was another factor that has influenced performance of the prepared catalysts where nickel catalysts exhibited higher activity and better deactivation resistance than cobalt catalysts. Varying metal type resulted in different physical and chemical characteristic properties of the synthesised catalyst and hence their performance was altered. Therefore, it was concluded from this study that several elements may contributed in determining the activity and selectivity of tetralin hydrogenation reaction. The reactivity of the synthesised catalysts was greatly influenced by reaction parameters. The outcome of the reaction conditions optimisation indicated that the high conversion achieved was due to the difference in the reaction temperature compared to literature studies where lower temperature was favoured for hydrogenation reactions. This was supported by a thermodynamic study which suggested that increasing the temperature by 100 °C (i.e 227-327 °C) can shift the reaction from hydrogenation to dehydrogenation. In terms of selectivity, the obtained experimental decalin isomer ratio was far below theoretical thermodynamic values. The findings of this study also revealed that high hydrogen pressure and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio enhanced the conversion and drove the reaction to favour trans-decalin selectivity except in some individual cases. However, further increase in hydrogen pressure resulted in faster deactivation rate owing to higher carbon laydown. Based on the optimisation and long runs results it was demonstrated that 100 % conversion (rate of 0.032 mol/g cat/h) and a reduced deactivation rate was attained using the HDC-OH catalyst at 210 °C, 10.5 H2/HC ratio, and 5 -10 barg of hydrogen pressure

    An analysis of the archaeological evolution of Pollok Country Park. The estate o' many pairts

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    The purpose of this research is to chart the archaeological evolution of Pollok Country Park in the south side of Glasgow from its medieval inception through to the 20th century. While the format and function of medieval secular land holdings are well understood within their English and Welsh context, the Scottish medieval secular estate has not been as well researched in terms of its underlying archaeological structure and design. The continuous ownership by the Maxwell and Stirling-Maxwell family of the Nether Pollok estate as a private residence and the administrative centre of the larger estate for 700 hundred years has meant that much of the medieval and even prehistoric environment is still directly accessible within the modern country parkland. An archaeological biography of the park has been developed; this has been set against a series of key historical events. These are readily defined as the estate’s inception in the 13th century, and its alteration during the mid to late 18th century and its 20th century form. Each of these periods is set against the archaeological material recorded and recovered from the parklands to develop an understanding of the utilisation of the environment and also to investigate the driving forces behind three transitional periods in the 13th, 18th and 20th centuries. Additionally the issues surrounding the effective study of these environments using archaeological techniques and the validity of the research model used for this type of study will also be discussed
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